Narconon Explains Why Users Turn into Dealers

Drug use relates to crime in many different ways. Some studies indicate that as much as 80% of crime is linked to drugs in some way, whether the abuser was under the influence of a substance at the time of the crime or his arrest, or the crime was committed as a result of drugs or as drug seeking behavior.

The Office of the National Drug Control Policy indicates that those who are drug dependent show higher likelihoods of remaining on the US criminal justice radar (on probation or incarcerated) and that addicted inmates account for majority of the United States’ incarcerated population.

Drug Abuse Drives Criminal Behavior

Why Do Addicts Become Dealers?

Why do addicts become dealers?

One of the direct ways drug use produces criminal activity is by mere use, possession and distribution of controlled, illicit substances. Law enforcement does not deal lightly with possession charges, and such individuals automatically become labeled as a criminal, though their actions indicate a serious underlying condition in need of treatment.

Immoral, criminal or shady behavior can surround addiction as direct reactions from drug use or withdrawal, or because of intense drug cravings. This behavior may manifest in the form of,

  • Stealing or petty theft (from loved ones or businesses)
  • Violence or physical abuse
  • Sexual abuse
  • Drug manufacturing
  • Drug trafficking or dealing
  • Driving under the influence of drugs

Sadly, many criminal offenders who are also drug abusers return to jail or prison, or are arrested again after their release. Such repeat offenders have little chance of escaping this cycle of re-arrests unless interventional drug treatment measures are implemented.

Why do Addicts Become Drug Dealers?

Many addicts turn to dealing as a means of maintaining their own habits as their addictions grow more severe. Rebecca, a recovered heroin addict, turned to dealing when her full-time job wasn’t enough to support her heroin.

“Being a female in the drug world, there are only a few options when it comes to supporting a drug habit,” says Rebecca. “When I learned that my paycheck would only support two or three days’ worth of heroin, I chose to sell drugs. In my case, I found myself dealing weed, heroin, and crack to help support my own habit. I didn’t do it because I intended to harm the people I sold to; I did it because it was a way to make money and maintain my habit without outright stealing.”

Thankfully Rebecca was able to stop using and dealing drugs after she completed heroin treatment at Narconon Arrowhead.

Solutions for Drug-Driven Criminal Behavior

Sadly, many addicts turn to dealing as a way to support their habits. To address this, Narconon drug treatment helps addicts regain control of their lives through comprehensive rehab and then offers individuals the opportunity to restore their own moral and codes.

“One of the key elements of Narconon treatment is having addicts really take responsibility for their actions,” says Derry Hallmark, Senior Director For Expansion at Narconon Arrowhead. “Deep down, people are basically good and they feel guilty for actions that they know have hurt others. Narconon drug treatment gets to the root of this and helps put addicts on the road to survival in all areas of their lives.”

Throughout the Narconon program, participants are afforded chances to make amends, rebuild relationships and repair past misdoings with family, friends, loved ones and groups. Most importantly, this severe guilt is addressed, giving an addict a fresh start.

Narconon Advises: What To Look for in Heroin Rehab

What to Look for in a Heroin RehabHeroin abuse, once thought to be a problem restricted to in inner cities and rough neighborhoods, has soared to all-time highs in recent years. Trends indicate opiate abuse is reaching suburban communities and youth–a demographic once through to be out of heroin’s reach. Further, the American prescription painkiller epidemic adds fuel to the fire by leading some users to street drugs when pain pills become to difficult to obtain.

An approximate 4 million Americans have used powerfully addictive heroin, making it clear now more than ever that heroin and opiate abusers need effective treatment. However, finding a good rehab can be like trying to find a needle in a haystack if you don’t know the key components to look for in treatment. Herein, Narconon will offer tips and advise some of the important questions to ask in your search for the right heroin rehab.

Heroin Abuse in the US – A Growing Problem

Heroin, a highly addictive opiate, has evolved through the years in terms of its popularity. The drug, which can be injected, snorted or smoked, is so habit-forming that the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) reports nearly a quarter of its first-time users become hooked.

Sadly, some parts of the US are reporting strong connections between the dependency to illegal heroin which has begun with prescription painkillers like Vicodin, OxyContin and other powerful opioid pills. As USA Today recently reported, such pharmaceutical addicts–finding their pills on short supply–are seen to switch to street drugs without knowing what they’re in for. Today, the issue of heroin and opiate abuse is no longer restricted to rough neighborhoods and the problem is increasingly widespread as prescription narcotics abuse continues to worsen.

“Our heroin patients come from the five best neighborhoods,” said Robert Martin, Director of Substance Abuse Services at the Carolinas Medical Center in Charlotte. Like many treatment experts, Martin witnesses and worries as these issues make it clear that prescription painkillers like OxyContin have become “gateway drugs” for heroin.

Key Components to Look For in a Heroin Rehab

“Finding the right drug treatment program can be difficult,” says Derry Hallmark, Senior Director For Expansion at Narconon Arrowhead. “But if you know what to look for it is very possible to find a program that gets positive results for permanent recovery from heroin addiction.”

Consider the following key aspects of a well-rounded treatment program in doing your research for heroin rehab.

  • Biophysical Detox and Physical Wellness

Heroin addiction is both mentally and physically grueling on the user. By the time an individual enters treatment, intense drug cravings and deteriorating health are usually very apparent. It is advisable that heroin rehab includes program elements which address the restoration of physical health.

  • Life Skills and Goal Orientation

Opiates tend to overtake a user’s life, eliminating goals or other important priorities. A reorientation to future goals, priorities, plans and life skills exercises can help an addict get back on his/her feet after treatment.

Other helpful “homework” questions to ask may include:

  • Is the program certified, as by the Department of Mental Health or the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities?
  • Is the facility safe and secure? Are there staff available around the clock?
  • Can the program provide references or recommendations from other supportive families?
  • How long is the program?
  • Are there medical staff available to supervise safe withdrawal?
  • Does the program utilize potentially addictive medications?
  • Does the program offer individualized care plans?
  • Is the program affordable? Do they accept insurance?

Drug addiction and treatment are highly personalized subjects. Beyond these points, what to look for in a heroin rehab will be determined by the addict’s specific circumstances, lifestyle choices and needs.

To get help for yourself or a loved one who is struggling with heroin addiction, contact Narconon Arrowhead today by calling 1-800-468-6933 or browse through a library of informative articles which can be found at www.heroinaddiction.com.

The Narconon Heroin Rehabilitation Program

L. Ron Hubbard and the Narconon Program

The Narconon program has, from the beginning, been founded on key principles developed by author and humanitarian, L. Ron Hubbard.

From its earliest days of inception in an Arizona State Prison cell to present day, the Narconon program aims to help as many substance abusers as possible to reclaim their lives using a unique and drug-free approach. On the matter of drugs, Mr. Hubbard is quoted,

“One has the choice of being dead with or being alive without them. Drugs rob life of the sensations and joys which are the only reason for living anyhow.” -L. Ron Hubbard

L. Ron Hubbard and the Narconon Drug Rehabilitation Program

In the early 1960s, Mr. Hubbard witnessed what he felt would be long-term consequences of the accelerating drug culture. He responded to Arizona State Prison inmate William Benitez’s requests for help with a fledgling Narconon program. Benitez had found some of Hubbard’s books in the prison library and, upon reading them, saw how Hubbard’s works could apply to the problem of substance abuse. Benitez reached out to Hubbard who continued to write up his observations on the effects of drugs on the individual person, his body, and the society as a whole.

The Narconon program from its inception promoted an approach to rehabilitation without recourse to alternative drugs. This early program did not, however, deal directly with withdrawal symptoms and difficulties. In 1973, after Mr. Hubbard had conducted further research to aid Narconon staff to help others through the difficulties of withdrawal discomfort safely and with minimal discomfort, the Narconon program adopted these procedures to include drug-free withdrawal, using vitamins and mineral supplements along with special techniques to ease the mental and physical symptoms caused by abstinence.

Mr. Hubbard further noted the scientific evidence behind the accumulation of drug and other toxic residuals in the human body. He postulated the influence that these psychoactive toxins might have, both subliminally and overtly, on the body and mind. He then developed a safe, healthy, and thorough method of cleansing the body of the actual drug residuals left behind after excessive substance abuse.

This pioneering innovation researched by Mr. Hubbard was adopted in 1978, known as the Narconon New Life Detoxification Program. This tissue-cleansing regimen was designed for the reduction of long-term physical and mental effects caused by drug and alcohol residuals in people who have taken these substances. Using a specific regimen of vitamin/mineral supplements alongside cardiovascular exercise, intensive sweating in dry heat saunas, adequate replacement of fluids and oils, this program has become immensely valuable in the course of treatment and recovery.

Keynotes of Narconon Heroin Rehab

One of the most fundamental principles underlying Narconon’s rehabilitative strategy is accountability. Each step of the program is designed along the theme of personal responsibility for one’s own actions and condition in life–good or bad. The Narconon Program is based on a theory that man is basically good, and that pain, suffering, and loss that lead him astray. Given new, workable ways to live life without drugs or alcohol, any addict can successfully recover.

With the New Life Detoxification Program, students regularly report a remarkable increase in clarity of thinking, peace of mind and well being. It can also reduces or eliminate cravings for drugs that stem from drug toxins which are hidden or lodged in the tissues of the body.

Based on decades of outcome studies, reviews, staff reports and graduate surveys, it has been determined that approximately 70% of Narconon graduates live drug abstinence lives, stay out of trouble and remain productive as by returning to work or school, measured during periods of time ranging from 6 months to several years.

To learn more about the Narconon Program and heroin addiction treatment, feel free to browse our full website for more resources and information.

© 2013 Narconon International. Grateful acknowledgement is made to L. Ron Hubbard Library for permission to reproduce selections from the copyrighted works of L. Ron Hubbard.

All About Heroin

All About Heroin

Recent increases in heroin abuse across American suburbs has made it the job of every parent to know all about heroin and its deadly effects.

Heroin is an illegal, highly addictive opiate drug. Derived from opium (obtained from the poppy plant), heroin is both the most commonly abused and most rapidly acting of the opiates. The drug can be smoked, injected or snorted, and the drug is typically seen sold as a white or brownish powder or as the black sticky substance known on the streets as black tar heroin.

Although pure heroin is common, much of the available street heroin is “cut” with other drugs or with substances such as sugar, starch, powdered milk or quinine. Street heroin can also be cut with strychnine or other poisons. Because heroin abusers do not know the actual strength of the drug or its true contents, they are at risk of overdose or death with each use. Heroin also poses special problems because of the transmission of HIV and other diseases that can occur as a result of sharing needles.

Also known by a number of street names in the US (which include: “smack,” “H,” “skag,” and “junk”), heroin users can overdose by snorting, injecting or smoking the drug, although opaite injection poses the greatest threat of overdose to its users by the excessive amount of the substance hitting the bloodstream all at once.

The Scope of Heroin Use in the US

According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), over 4 million Americans over the age of 12 used heroin at least once in their lifetime, as reported in 2011. Further, NIDA’s sources say that about a quarter (23%) of those who use heroin become opiate dependent due to its highly addictive nature.

An estimated 669,000 people used heroin in 2012, and although the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) reports that marijuana continues to be the number one drug of choice amongst Americans, it was recently reported that heroin use has been on the rise in the US since 2007.

Many attribute this increase in the resurgence of heroin to the related issue of prescription painkiller abuse, pill addicts are seen turning to heroin, making the fastest-growing group of heroin addicts young drug users living in middle class American suburbs.

The Effects of Heroin

Shortly after heroin has been consumed (whether by inhalation, snorting or injection), the powerful opiate hits the bloodstream creating an intense pleasurable sensation, often described as a euphoria or a “rush.” (The degree of intensity of the rush depends on the amount and potency of the heroin consumed.)

Once the initial intense rush has worn off, a heroin abuser may continue to feel a variety of short-term effects, including:

  • Feeling of warmth
  • Dry mouth
  • Heaviness
  • Extreme drowsiness (“nodding off”)
  • Constricted pupils

Some heroin users experience vomiting, impaired vision and mental function, trouble breathing (due to a depressed respiratory system) and nervous system suppression.

Long-term effects of heroin are seen after use of the drug continues and may include:

  • Infections (on the open wounds of the skin; i.e. ulcers, abscesses, etc.)
  • Heart trouble
  • Liver disease
  • Diseases/complications in other organs (kidneys, brain, etc.)
  • Contraction of HIV/AIDS and Hepititis

Some users can rapidly develop pneumonia and other chronic illnesses as a result of general poor health of the blood vessels servicing the lungs and other vital organs.

Heroin withdrawal can be extremely uncomfortable and dangerous to undergo without the proper supervision of trained medical staff. If you need assistance determining the next step in safely treating your own or a loved one’s heroin addiction, please contact us today by calling 1-800-468-6933.

Evaluation of the Narconon Drug Rehab

The Narconon Drug Rehabilitation Program: Ongoing Program Evaluation

September 11-12, 1997
Presentation by Shelley L. Beckman. Ph.D.
International Conference on Human Detoxification
 
Introduction
During the past three years, there has been an ongoing evaluation of the Narconon program at two Narconon facilities in the United States. These facilities are located in Los Angeles, California, and Chilocco, Oklahoma. This ongoing evaluation is aimed at both monitoring some of the factors involved in delivery of the Narconon program and at assessing the long term results of this comprehensive socio-educational approach.
The purpose of this evaluation was three-fold:

  1. The first goal of this evaluation was to monitor ongoing delivery to the clients at both Narconon facilities. Daily and weekly reports provided information on each client on the program. This ongoing evaluation afforded a detailed picture of what it takes to deliver rehabilitation service to hard core drug addicts.
  2. The second goal of this study was to evaluate the success of the Narconon program in retaining clients through the full treatment regimen.
  3. The third goal of this study was to assess the long term efficacy of the Narconon program. Efficacy measures included ability to stay off of drugs, criminal behavior and educational or career progress

Study Design
The client population included every client who started the Narconon program at either Narconon Los Angeles or Narconon Chilocco during the study period. By including every client we avoided bias in the selection.
The initial evaluation included a comprehensive interview based on the widely used “Addiction Severity Index” and quantitative testing for drugs of abuse in a urine sample, taken on arrival. (The severity index has been used in many evaluations of drug rehabilitation programs.)
The progress of each client was then monitored throughout the study via a daily report and periodic urine testing.
A total of 273 clients participated in this study.
Demographics
The clientele at different Narconon facilities do vary considerably. Factors such as regional problems with drug abuse and governmental support for drug rehabilitation play important roles. To apply the results of this study, it is important to know something about the clients at the two Narconon facilities that were being evaluated.

  • 81% of the clients participating in this study were male, 19% were female.
  • The average age was 30.7 +/- 8.6 years. (Range 14-66 years).
  • 67% were Caucasian, 13% Hispanic, 9% American Indian, 8% African-American and 3% other.
Education and Employment
The educational level was comparable to some other drug rehabilitation programs. 20% of these clients had not completed high school. 80% had completed high school or above, 14% had gone to trade school or junior college after high school, 9% had completed college and 2% had post-graduate degrees such as a masters in business or science or a doctorate degree.
Work Patterns
About half of these clients were currently working. 60% report their usual pattern is to work full time, yet:

  • 46% did not work in the last 30 days.
  • Only 37% were currently employed.

Many clients had recently lost their jobs – being fired or leaving work due to their drug abuse problems.
Legal Involvement
Of the clients participating in this study:

  • 22% admitted having engaged in illegal activity for profit in the last 30 days.
  • On average, those who were currently engaged in illegal activities admitted to having done so 13 of the last 30 days.

From a Longer Term View

  • 81% of these Narconon clients had been incarcerated in their lifetime.
  • 33% of these clients had been incarcerated for greater than a month.
  • 13% had been incarcerated for greater than a year in their lifetimes.
  • On average, they had been in jail 4.3 +/- 10.5 months in their lifetimes.

There is a major problem with illegal activities in this group. As described later, the Narconon program does have a very positive effect on these statistics.

Drugs of Abuse
The preferred drug of abuse does vary considerably among clients participating in the Narconon program. The primary drug of abuse for clients in this study was the following:

Crack Cocaine 65           (24%)
Alcohol 52           (19%)
Other Forms of Cocaine 36           (13%)
Heroin 34           (12%)
Amphetamines 33           (12%)
Marijuana 33           (2%)
LSD 06           (2%)
PCP 04           (1%)
Inhalants 02           (1%)
Mixtures 36           (13%)
During the time frame of this study, the most prevalent drug of abuse for the clients at the Los Angeles and Chilocco facilities was crack cocaine. Other prevalent drugs, in order, were alcohol, other forms of cocaine, heroin and other opiates, amphetamines, and some marijuana, LSD, PCP and inhalants.
Mixtures of drugs were a problem for a large percentage of this study population. On average, these clients had used more than one drug in 8 days of the prior month. No primary drug of abuse could even be named by 13% of this study’s clients. About half of these were mainly cocaine and heroin addicts, with a wide variety of other combinations as well.
Abuse at the two facilities – Chilocco and Los Angeles – varied and these facilities had different drugs of abuse then the facilities in Europe. For example the American Indian population at Chilocco was far more likely to abuse alcohol than other drugs and only the Chilocco facility dealt with inhalant addicts. Similarly, the primary drug of abuse in the Italian facilities was heroin rather than cocaine or crack during this time period.
On average, these clients began using alcohol at age 15 and drugs at age 15 and a half . They had been using drugs, on average, for 15 years.
Prior Attempts at Drug RehabilitationPrior drug or alcohol rehabilitation attempts were prevalent in this study population.
22% of the clients had previously done an alcohol rehabilitation program and 56% had previously attempted drug rehabilitation. For those who had tried rehab, the average was over three previous attempts. .
12% had been in some other form of rehab in the last 30 days.
As a general statement, Narconon clients have had a long term addiction to drugs or alcohol and have encountered multiple prior failures in treatment.
This is consistent with Narconon’s reputation for handling the hard core, so-called “intractable” drug addict.
The long term efficacy study was designed to evaluate individuals who came for the first time to do the full Narconon program. Of the 273 clients monitored during this study, 184 qualified for this group.
Results
Drug Tests During Program Delivery
Urine samples were taken on intake, at two weeks, at one month and at two months into the program for a subset of the full study population. The clients were not warned that samples were to be taken.100% of the clients whose major drug was crack cocaine had positive urine tests. Other forms of cocaine showed 62% of clients with positive tests for drug metabolites. Almost 70% of amphetamine users had positive urine tests, 85% of opiate users and 50% of alcoholics.
As clients progressed through the program, there was a steady decrease in both the percentage of clients testing positive for drugs of abuse and the level of drug found in urine. Testing in this case was occurring during the withdrawal and detoxification treatment periods. Minute but detectable levels of drug metabolites were found in a significant proportion of these clients for several weeks.
On intake, 77% of clients tested positive for drug metabolites. By two weeks, 35% tested positive for drugs of abuse, though the majority of tests were in the low range.
At one month 15% still tested positive for drug metabolites. The levels of drugs found at this time were quite low, not indicative of recent drug use.
At two months, slightly higher levels of drug metabolites were found in four clients while two demonstrated low levels of metabolites. Two of those with the higher levels were clients who staff had suspected of drinking alcohol and they did test positive.
For most follow-up samples, the level of drug metabolites was less than 1/20th of that found at intake. Although this does not preclude continuing drug use, the low levels suggest that what we are seeing is ongoing elimination of drug metabolites in most of these clients, particularly given the fact that they were on the detoxification program at the time.
This portion of the overall study demonstrates that several weeks may be required for elimination of drug metabolites in some clients. Detectable levels of drugs continue to be eliminated for some weeks in at least a third of the Narconon clients tested.
Monitoring Program Delivery
Daily and weekly reports were made throughout the study period. These assisted Narconon management to isolate specific problem areas in delivery and correct or improve the quality of the program.
Among the improvements implemented during this study were:

  1. Specific drills to help the Narconon client gain control over his addiction.
  2. Staff training enhancements in the area of detecting clients not qualified for the Narconon program.
  3. Increased follow-up contact with graduates to help them stay off drugs and apply what they gained from Narconon to their everyday lives.

Weekly then monthly calls from staff helped clients through minor difficulties before they turned into major ones.

Measures of Efficacy
Program Retention
An important factor in judging the success of any program is whether or not it can keep its clients. Retention can refer to both the number of days at a facility and the amount of work completed. The most important point as regards retention is whether the client completed the program.
Of the 273 clients who participated in this study, 66% completed the Narconon program. Similarly, of the 184 clients doing the full program for the first time, 67% completed their Narconon programs.
Within this population, program completion did vary by drug of abuse. Of the 184 doing the full program for the first time, crack cocaine users had the poorest rate of program completion (60%) while users of other forms of cocaine had the highest completion rate.
Reduction in Criminal Behavior (initial findings)
There are 123 graduates of the full program in this study population. So far, 48 of these have been interviewed two years after program completion.
For the 48 graduates who have been interviewed, results indicate a marked improvement in criminal behavior.

  • The number of days participatingin illegal activities for profit was, on average, 2.8 of the last 30 daysbefore the Narconon program and 0.4 afterThis is a direct comparison of the behavior for these clients before the program (not the whole group) to their behavior after program completion. This change represents an 86% improvement in reported criminal activity.
  • The length of the last incarceration was 3.6 months (108 days) for this group priorto Narconon. The average for this follow-up group was less than one day after the program. (Over 99% improvement)
  • Finally, the average for days incarcerated in the last 30 was 1.9 prior to Narconon and less than 0.05 after the program. (A 97% improvement)

Conclusion
The Narconon program is designed to assist the hard-core drug addiction. The program deals with individuals having a variety of addictions. Most clients have a long term addiction with multiple prior attempts at rehabilitation.
Drugs are gradually eliminated over the first several weeks of the Narconon program. This is concurrent with participation by the clients in the detoxification component of the program.
Approximately two-thirds of the clients who start the program do complete it. Preliminary results indicate the program graduates demonstrate marked improvements in their criminal behavior. Interviews also indicate significant improvements in their use of drugs.
The long term evaluation of this program is ongoing. Initial results as reported herein give reason for optimism regarding the effectiveness of this approach in recovering the drug abuser and stably improving his behavior and ability to live within the mores of civilized society.

Results of the Narconon Program

Narconon Arrowhead: An Overview of the Program

December, 1994
Prepared by Shelley L. Beckmann, Ph.D.
The Narconon Program vs. Traditional Treatment
The Narconon Program vs. Traditional Treatment
The Narconon program addresses all aspects of addiction, with the result being that 76% of those graduating the Narconon program are drug-free two years later. This is in contrast to the 16%-20% of more traditional programs.
Results of the Narconon® Program: Key FindingsIncarcerated Populations:
The Narconon program was originally set up for incarcerated populations. The program has been delivered in a variety of institutional settings. Several means of monitoring the programs’ effects have been used:
1) Parolees who had taken Narconon program courses at the California Dept. of Corrections, The California Institute for Women, the Arizona Correctional Authority and Riker’s Island Institute for Men in New York were tracked.
On average, 73% of Narconon program clients released from prison remained clean while on parole.
2) Youth at the Youth Training School of the California Youth Authority had the opportunity to participate in a Narconon program. The behavior of youth at the facility was monitored by the number of infractions, the number of restrictions, and the grade being achieved in trade school.
Those youth who participated in the Narconon program showed positive changes in each of these measures compared to other youth at the same facility who did not participate. In fact, the number of infractions and the number of restrictions of non-participants increased while the numbers for Narconon program clients decreased.
3) Narconon program clients at the State Reformatory for Men in Minnesota showed improvements in the number of rule infractions of which they were found guilty, of the days of lost privileges, and the days of segregation. These changes were evident during both program delivery and follow up time periods.
4) Parolees from the Delaware Correctional Center were tracked. 70% of the Narconon program clients had no arrest during the follow up period, compared to 36% of the control population.

Residential Programs:
Narconon programs have been delivering services to non-incarcerated populations since 1972.
1) In surveys of graduates from four facilities located in Connecticut, Boston, West Berlin and Sweden, employment was almost doubled, arrests were greatly reduced, and the vast majority (as much as 90%) reported that they were no longer using drugs.
2) In a study conducted in Spain, over 75% of graduates remained free of drugs. Whereas almost 90% had been actively involved with crime before the Narconon program, none were involved with crime afterwards.
The Narconon program is effective, both in reducing drug abuse and in improving the behavior of clients.
1. Introduction:
The Narconon organization is a public benefit, non-profit, 501(c)(3) corporation that is committed to the elimination of substance abuse. Founded in 1966, Narconon centers have supplied drug rehabilitation treatment and education/prevention services for 28 years. The Narconon approach is based on techniques developed by author and philosopher L. Ron Hubbard.
Each component of the Narconon program is designed to increase the abilities of the client. The initial program included courses and drills designed to increase the client’s communication skills, study skills and orientation to the environment. Over the years the program has expanded to address additional needs of the substance abuser. The Narconon program now includes drug-free withdrawal, detoxification, and specific courses designed to increase the client’s communication skills, study skills, orientation to the environment, understanding of moral principles, and preparation for work.
The Narconon program was founded in Arizona State Prison and initially expanded predominately to other prison facilities. In 1972, Narconon centers began delivering services to the public at its first residential facility in Los Angeles. There are currently 37 Narconon facilities worldwide. The majority of these facilities provide drug rehabilitation services to the public in a residential setting.

2. Results of the Narconon® Program in the Prison Setting:
Several evaluations of the Narconon program have been conducted. Evaluations of Narconon programs being delivered to incarcerated populations have focused on objective measures of behavior, including the involvement of clients with the criminal justice system during and after parole.
Surveys of Narconon® Program Graduates:
Simple tabulations of the behavior of parolees were done in several institutions in the 1970’s:
A) The California Dept. of Corrections reported on 19 inmates who had participated in the Narconon program while in prison. 17 had been paroled. 12 of these were reported as clean (70%). Of the five remaining, 2 were not found, 2 had been arrested and one was suspended due to cocaine use.
B) In a study conducted in Spain, over 75% of graduates remained free of drugs. Whereas almost 90% had been actively involved with crime before doing the Narconon program, none were involved with crime afterwards.
C) The California Institute for Women reported on 25 Narconon clients. 23 had been paroled. 18 of these were clean (78%). Of the remaining, 3 were parolees at large and 2 had been arrested.
D) The Arizona Correctional Authority reported on 76 Narconon clients who had been released from prison. 32 were found. 24 of these were clean (75%).
E) The Narconon organization’s Executive Director compiled a report on Narconon clients at the Riker’s Island Institute for Men in New York. Of the 81 clients who had started the voluntary course, 43 had completed the initial program. 21 of these had been paroled and 17 were contacted. 14 of these were clean (82% of those found, 67% of total parolees).
Overall, around 73% of the Narconon clients released from prison remained clean while on parole in these follow up surveys.Evaluations of the Narconon® Program:
California Youth Authority:The effectiveness of the Narconon program in changing behavior was studied at the Youth Training School (YTS) of the California Youth Authority. This study was aimed at monitoring objective measures of behavior. Therefore, the evaluators tabulated the number of infractions, the number of restrictions, and the grade being achieved in trade school.
Narconon program clients were defined as those students who regularly attended meetings for one to four months. Controls had not participated in the Narconon program. 14 clients were compared to 27 randomly selected controls.
On average, the youth participating in the program had been at the Youth Training School for 5 months prior to program start. They continued at the school for 4 to 8 months. Therefore, the three measures were compared for the first 5 months versus the balance of the school program for both Narconon clients and controls. This comparison was designed to assess any change in behavior following the Narconon program.
Table I shows the average finding for each of these measurements. Both the number of infractions and the number of restrictions for Narconon clients decreased, on the average, after starting the program. In comparison, the number of infractions and restrictions increased for the control group of YTS wards.
The average grade in trade school for both Narconon clients and the control group increased over the course of the program. The increase in grade level was more pronounced for those in the Narconon program.
As Dan Fauchier, of the Youth Authority, stated: “[the survey] results should not be viewed as positive proof of the Narconon program’s effectiveness, they do seem to strongly indicate that the Narconon program is having a very positive and beneficial effect in increasing the socially-desirable behavior of its participants both in trade classes and on the living units.”
TABLE I
Study of Narconon Program Clients at the Youth Training School in California

 

Up to 5 months After 5 months
(Pre Narconon program) (Post Narconon program)
Number of infractions (average)
Narconon Program Clients 2.6 1.4
Controls 1.5 2.7
Trade School Grade (average)
Narconon Program Clients C- B
Controls C C



Minnesota Reformatory:Narconon program clients at the State Reformatory for Men in Minnesota were evaluated by Posthumos and Snowden in 1978. The authors chose to evaluate the change in behavior of Narconon clients with time, considering the pre-treatment behavior pattern as the control for this population. These authors were also interested in monitoring objective measures of behavior. The measures available, which the institute monitored as part of its standard operation, included:


(1) Institutional rule infractions that the inmates were found guilty of,
(2) Days of lost privileges, and
(3) Days of segregation.


The number of infractions were tabulated for the 6 months prior to treatment, the time during treatment and the 6 months after treatment with the Narconon program. These results are reported as the number of infractions per 100 inmates per 30 day period.


There was a marked reduction in all measures during treatment with the Narconon program (Table II). During treatment, guilty findings were reduced by 38%, days of lost privileges were reduced by 35%, and days of segregation were reduced by 53%.


During follow-up there was also an improvement in these measures, though less than that observed while on the program. Guilty findings were reduced by 40%, days of lost privileges by 15% and days of segregation by 28%. The decrease in guilty findings was statistically significant (p<0.01) during both treatment and follow up.


TABLE II
Results of the Narconon® Program in Minnesota
Compiled by Researchers at the State Reformatory for Men

 

Clients (36) Pre (6 mo.) During Post (6 mo.)
No. Guilty Findings* 48 30** 29**
Days Lost Privileges 274 177 232
Days Segregated 552 257 395


* all results are number per 100 inmates per 30 days.
** Statistically significant improvement (p <0.01)


For comparison, a tabulation of 10% of the prison population, randomly selected, was also done. Measures were tabulated for an initial 3 months and compared to a later 3 month period. In contrast to the findings for Narconon program clients. each of these measures increased with time in the average prison population. The number of guilty findings increased by 77%, the days of lost privileges by 169% and the days of segregation by 26%. The Narconon program was effective in reversing this negative trend.


There was a difference between the Narconon program participants and the general prison population. The Narconon program attracted more property offenders than personal offenders. Whereas the prison population included 58% personal and 42% property offenders, the Narconon program clientele included 33% personal and 58% property offenders. The Narconon program was especially effective at reducing the above negative measures in property offenders while they were on the program. Long term, however, both property and personal offenders benefited approximately equally.


This study also compared the results of the program in its first and second 6 months of operation. The results improved in the second 6 months as the treatment staff became more familiar with the prison population.


The Narconon program delivered in the Delaware Correctional Center was evaluated in 1975. The Narconon program clients were, on average, more violent and were serving a longer term than the average for the population. The mean sentence was 5 years for Narconon clients versus less than one year for the total population. 58% of Narconon clients were incarcerated for a major crime whereas 23% of the total population were incarcerated for a major crime.


Narconon® Program Graduates Arrest Rate:


The arrest rates for Narconon program graduates following release were compared to the rates for a randomly selected group of parolees. The Narconon program group was composed of all graduates of the communication course who had been paroled. Of the 86 Narconon program parolees, 4 were not found and 2 were dead. Therefore the treated population consisted of 80 clients.


The control group was composed of the first 100 parolees released following the mean date for release of the Narconon program clients. Two were excluded as they had done part of the Narconon program and 11 were not found. The control group comprised 87 individuals.


Deleware Correctional Center: Parolees Not Arrested

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Figure 1: Deleware Parolees not arrested after release.


70% of the Narconon program clients had no arrest during the follow up period, compared to 36% of the control population. (Figure 1)


Further, the amount of training the Narconon program clients had completed was positively correlated with successful rehabilitation. 84% of those clients who had done one or more courses beyond the communications course had no further arrest compared to 62% for those who had completed only the communications course. (Figure 1)


These findings support the concept that the Narconon program is effective in bringing about positive behavioral changes in the incarcerated population.

 

3. Evaluations of Narconon® Residential Programs:
Survey of Program Results
The Narconon program has been delivering services to non-incarcerated populations since 1972. Currently, the majority of the Narconon programs deliver drug rehabilitation services to the public in residential facilities. The main criteria tracked in surveys have been the number of clients off drugs, involvement with the criminal justice system, and employment status. The results of several surveys of Narconon program clients are shown in Table III.
TABLE III
Evaluations of the Narconon® Program, Delivered to Public Populations

Drug Use Arrests
Location Group Number Before After Before After
Connecticut Clients 10 10 2 0
Control* 10 10 8 5 3
West Berlin Clients 20 20 0 12 1
Control 20 20 19 14 7
Drug Use Employed
Location Group Number Before After Before After
Boston Clients 11 11 1 3 6
Control 11 11 11 4 4

* Contacted the Narconon program, but did not start program.
The Connecticut survey was done shortly after program completion, the West Berlin study 7 months after graduation and the Boston study shortly after program completion.
In each of these surveys, the majority of the Narconon program graduates were no longer using drugs. Where monitored, their involvement with the criminal justice system had lessened and their employment improved. None earned money from crime after.
The Narconon program appears beneficial in both reducing drug abuse and reducing involvement with crime.
Therapeutic Evaluation:
These results align with an independent study of the Narconon facilities done in Spain in 1985. In this study, an independent sociology group called Teenicos Asociados de Investigacion y Marketing (TAIM) evaluated the Narconon program. TAIM had also done studies on drug issues for the Ministry of Health, the Social Services Department of the Town Hall of Madrid, and the National Institute of Social Services of the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of Spain.
The Spanish study showed that 78.4 percent of the people who completed the Narconon program remained off drugs. Overall, 69.2 percent of the people contacted (including those who had not graduated) were still off drugs.
TAIM Study: Drug Use and Crime of Clientsrebefaf
Figure 2: TAIM Study – Change in Drug Use and Involvement with Crime after Graduation.
Crime:
The Narconon program also had a profound effect on the criminal activities of clients. Before doing the Narconon program, 62.2 percent of the participants admitted having committed robberies and 73 percent had been dealing drugs. Only 10.8 percent of the participants did not previously engage in criminal activity. The study revealed that no criminal activities were reported by any of the Narconon program graduates after graduation.
Regarding relationships with their families, 67.6 percent of Narconon program graduates said that their family situation was now much better, 29.7 percent said that it had changed for the better and only 2.7 percent said that it was the same. No one stated that it had changed for the worse.
Evaluation of Recent Narconon® Program Graduates.:
Narconon program clients generally take from three to five months to complete the program, though some take significantly longer and a few have completed the program in two months. Each step is designed to address an area that virtually all substance abusers need to improve. The order of components is carefully laid out to utilize prior tools and prepare the student for the next step. The ideal situation is that every Narconon program client completes the full program.
Narconon International: Clients Treated/Program Graduates
recomprog
Figure 3: Portion of clients completing the program. Figure shows the total number of clients for the years 1998 through 1992 along with the total number graduating from the program in these years.
The percentage of program completions is therefore an important measure of the success of this program. The number of clients completing the program internationally in 1990 was 789 (39% of starts), in 1991 was 1,019 (51% of starts) and in 1992 was 1,084 (56% of starts). (see Figure 3)